Large rivers in Central Asia became a cradle of the ancient states — cities and civilizations were born and died on their banks. The main arteries were Amu Darya and Syr Darya, fed by hundreds of small rivers flowing down from the Tien Shan and Pamir mountain ranges. For millennia, they have been used for irrigation, fishing and shipping. The Amu Darya is the deepest river in Central Asia. Forming by the confluence of the Panj and Vakhsh, it rises in the territory of Tajikistan.
The Geopolitics of Hydropower in Central Asia: the Syr Darya 中央アジアにおける水力発電の地政学−−シルダリア
Amu Darya River Basin | Amu Darya Basin Network
Water resources management in the Central Asia region faces formidable challenges. The hydrological regimes of the two major rivers in the region, the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya, are complex and vulnerable to climate change. Water diversions to agricultural, industrial and domestic users have reduced flows in downstream regions, resulting in severe ecological damages. The administrative-institutional system is fragmented, with six independent countries sharing control, often with rival objectives. What once was a basin-wide management approach during the Soviet times has become an uncoordinated competition between the upstream Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan and the downstream Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. The hydraulic infrastructure is distributed over various independent countries. As a result, the water resources system is not managed collectively and cooperatively.
Amu Darya River Basin
Three major right feeders Kafirnigan, Surhandarya, Sherobod and left feeder flow into the middle stream of the Amudarya River. The river mostly fed by slush and glacial waters. The water in Amudarya is turbid. Then the waters of the river flows along the border Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, in the Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve on the border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan , and flows from there north-westwards into the southern remnants of the Aral Sea. In ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between Greater Iran and Turan. The Brahmanda Purana refers to the river as Chaksu. Western travelers in the 19th century mentioned that one of the names by which the river was known in Afghanistan was Gozan , and that this name was used by Greek, Mongol, Chinese, Persian, Jewish, and Afghan historians.